Do I have to have a business to register a trademark? Or can I register a trademark without an LLC?

Generally speaking, any individual whether local or foreign can register a trademark they own. There are very few countries internationally which do not allow individuals to own trademarks. the reason for this is to encourage homes based businesses to be incorporated and incurring taxes. In other countries, trademark registration in the name of individuals is only allowed for locals and not foreigners. Setting up a company is not required for trademark protection, you can register a trademark in your name in most countries. However, for tax purposes and for governance purposes and for liability purposes, it is best to have a trademark owned by a company, or as soon as you set up your company transfer the rights of a trademark from the individual founder to the company.